Basically, anything labeled crystal, caramel, or cara-something are caramel malts. Caramel malts are steepable and they’re generally used to add sweetness, body, flavor, color, and foam retention to both extract and all-grain brews. They’re usually named based on color - which can be very specific and scientific, based on the Lovibond color scale (Caramel 60 L), or pretty subjective (Dark Crystal). As a general rule, the lighter-colored crystal malts are more strictly ‘sweet,’ while darker crystal malts can add toffee and caramel flavors and some roastiness or nuttiness in addition to sweetness.
On the extreme light end, there are dextrin malts - these malts add unfermentable sugars which contribute body and a thicker mouthfeel to beer without adding color or flavor. Many maltsters have their own trademarked brand names for certain malts - so CaraFoam® (Weyermann®), Carapils® (Briess), Caramel Pils, and Dextrin Malt are all different names for very similar malts. On the dark end, crystal malts such as Special B®, Extra Special Roast, and Extra Dark Crystal can add a wide variety of flavors which may include burnt sugar, raisin, prune, cherry, or other dark dried fruit. Crystal malts in the middle tend to offer varying degrees of sweet caramel flavor, hence the name.