Hops: Getting to the root of brewing | Article 3 of 3


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Short Pour: HopShot for your Beer, Not your Eyes

“There’s no such thing as too many hops!” We all know some hop-head who lives by these words. But, truth be told, as much as we love those super-hoppy, over-the-top delicious double IPAs, there’s always the risk of going too far. If you’ve ever crossed that line, you know what I’m talking about.


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Step One: Preparation

You’ll Need:

A list or knowledge of your home brewing equipment, ingredients and some sanitizer.


Success, so the saying goes, is 90% preparation and 10% inspiration, and so it is with beer. Brewing beer involves
boiling malt, hops and water to create a grainy, sugary liquid.

Next, we add a fungus – yeast – to the wort, allow for time to pass and we have flat, warm beer.

Finally, we mix this warm, flat beer with a bit of sugar and bottle it, which will result in carbonated beer after a week or

But, let’s step back a moment. We add a fungus? Sure. Yeast is a fungus, a very special fungus, it is the crucial
element to the creation of beer, it is what converts sugars into alcohol. We want to create an environment in which the
yeast is happy; where the yeast is allowed to eat away at sugars without any competition. Competition means the yeast
is unable to produce alcohol and even worse, competition means that some other element has entered our beer.
Chances are this other element is bacteria. Bacteria will create off flavors in beer, beer that tastes, smells or feels
unlike beer should, perhaps a strong smell of vinegar, a taste of cardboard, a viscous feel. Yuck.

To prevent the introduction of such odd elements, we clean and sanitize. It is the most important task of the entire
brewing process. You must clean well everything that your beer may come in contact with, and just before use you
must sanitize this equipment as well. Your brew kettle will not need to be sanitized as the boiling wort will accomplish
this, but you will want the kettle clean.

There are many sanitizing solutions on the market, each with their own direction. Most are quick and easy to use. For
example, Easy Clean: 1-Tablespoon Cleanser per 1-Gallon warm water and 2 minutes of contact time. No rinsing


Sanitizer: Sanitizer keeps your equipment clean and prevents infection.

Brew Kettles: Used for boiling your wort.

Fermentation Vessel: A container used to ferment your beer.

Fermentation Lock: Keeps your beer from being oxidized during fermentation.

Spoon: Used for whirlpooling and helps prevent boilovers.

Hydrometer: Use the hydrometer to figure out your original and final gravity.

Bottles: Once your beer has fermented, bottle it for serving.

Auto Siphon: The auto siphon to transfers beer between fermentation vessels.

Bottle Cappers: An essential piece of equipment, fastens caps to the bottle.

Bottle Caps: We have a variety of closures that work with many different bottles.

Starter Kits: Choose a variety of Starter Kits to begin brewing!


All Northern Brewer Recipe Kits and for that matter nearly all beer will have four basic ingredients: Malt, Hops, Yeast
and water. Don’t be fooled by the length of this list; there is enormous variety within each of these categories, enough
to produce the wondrous array of beers available today, from the palest pilsner to the blackest stout and everything in

Some recipes and kits may also include specialty grains, sugars or spices.

You provide the most basic ingredient for your beer, water. Water chemistry can make a dramatic difference in your
beer, but if your water tastes good to drink, it is fit for brewing.


Beer is brewed by fermenting the sugars of malted barley and other cereal grains. Brewers utilize the process of
malting, wherein seeds are prompted to sprout, after which growth is stopped through kiln drying, to eventually access
these sugars. Malting stimulates amylase enzyme production within the grain. Brewers crush the malted grain and soak
it in hot water in a process known as “mashing.” This activates the enzymes, which convert the grain’s starch into
sugars. These sugars are then rinsed from the grain and the resulting liquid, known as “wort”, is boiled with hops and
other ingredients. After boiling and cooling the wort yeast is added to ferment the substance and produce delicious

Most new brewers prefer not to perform the mashing step themselves. Liquid malt extract and dry malt extract are the
concentrated results of this process, malt sugars that have been produced by mashing and packaged for later use.
Extract brewers then steep a small amount (usually about 1 pound) of specialty grains to provide specific malt flavors
and color in the finished beer.


Hops are the cone-shaped flower of the perennial Humulus lupulus plant. Hops are added to wort to impart a bitterness
perfect to balance the sweetness of malt and to provide a wide variety of flavors and aromas. In addition to the
bittering, flavoring and aromatic qualities that hops bring to beer, they also serve as a stability agent, preventing
spoilage, contribute to head retention and act as a natural clarifier. While the use of hops in brewing is the norm today,
it wasn’t until the eleventh century that hop use was first documented in Germany and not until the sixteenth century
the use of hops became common to British brewers. Prior to this introduction beers were flavored and preserved with
plants such as heather, rosemary, anise, spruce and wormwood; adventurous brewers still use these ingredients today.
Particular hop varieties are often associated with particular beer styles, regions or even a particular brewery’s
signature style. Hops are grown in countless varieties. All hops contain alpha and beta acids, it is these acids that
contribute to the stability and bitterness of the beer.

Hops also contain a host of essential oils which can boil off if added early in the boiling process but which lend
characteristic flavor and aroma when added later in the boil or even after fermentation. Each hop varietal can
contribute dramatically different qualities of bitterness, flavor and aroma to beer. These flavors and aromas are often
described as grassy, floral, citrusy, flowery, spicy, earthy, etc. Hops are often found as pellets, plugs or whole leaf. A
staple of homebrew stores, you can also grow your own!


In 1516, The Reinheitsgebot, or German Beer Purity Law, listed the only allowable ingredients for brewing beer to be
malt, hops and water. As you can see, at one time, yeast was an unknown element, the primary agent of fermentation
being completely mysterious! The Vikings found that if they reused the stick used to stir their beer, it would help start
the next fermentation process. These ‘magic sticks’ were so valuable they were often family heirlooms passed from
generation to generation. In truth we now know that these sticks carried the family yeast culture, the crucial element in
fermenting wort to create beer. Fortunately for German brewers the Reinheitsgebot was amended rightly to include
yeast after the microorganisms were discovered.

There is an old saying: brewers make wort, yeast makes beer.

So just what is yeast?

Yeast is a type of fungus. An organism that reproduces asexually, it is unusual in that it can live with or without oxygen.
In a low oxygen environment yeast cells consume sugars and in return produce carbon dioxide and alcohol as waste
products. This process is fermentation. Yeast is used in making wine, mead and cider as well as beer. Brewing yeast
tends to be classified as either “top fermenting” or “bottom fermenting”. As the names indicate, the yeast strains tend to
be most active towards the top and bottom of the wort respectively, though the cells are dispersed throughout. Top
fermenting yeasts produce an ale style beer, bottom fermenting a lager style beer. These yeast strains are actually two
different species, differentiated by temperature tolerance as well as a few other factors. Ale strains prefer warmer
temperatures while lager strains ferment best at cooler temperatures.


Short Pour – To Harvest, or Not To Harvest?

If you’re like me, you get tingles when you think about hop harvest season. Like a helicopter parent, you’ve coddled your backyard hop bines since they were babies, tending to them religiously and watching proudly as they’ve grown over the summer to be 16, 18, perhaps more than 20 feet tall! And now you’re staring at their beautiful cones, just waiting to be lovingly bombed into that IPA recipe you’ve been itching to brew. The time is now! you think to yourself.


Short Pour – Re-used Spent Grains: Re-diculously Delicious

Whether you’re steeping grains for an extract brew or mashing in an all-grain system there are usually a lot of grains involved. Grains add color, body and flavor to every brew but their usefulness doesn’t need to end there. Even after the wort is made, the spent grains have leftover fiber, protein, minerals, vitamins and essential amino acids waiting to be used anywhere but the landfill. Beer and food tend to go hand in hand and that is why I recommend incorporating spent grains from your kettle into your kitchen recipes.


Short Pour – Hard Cider Made Easy

If you would have asked me three years ago about hard cider making I might have scoffed and rolled my eyes. I’m a “beer guy.” Two years ago a friend talked me into making a few 6 gallon batches of hard cider using apples from the family farm. It was excellent!