Adjuncts are generally used to alter the texture and flavor of beer. Some, like oats, can be used to enhance the mouthfeel, lending a silky texture. Others, like corn or rice are used to lighten the body, drying out the beer and making it ‘less filling’. Examples of brewing adjuncts are flaked barley, flaked oats, maize, and torrified wheat, among others. Adjuncts tend to be unmalted and starchy. Adjuncts don’t have sugars available like crystal malts, so they generally shouldn’t be steeped for extract brewing. These grains can add some characteristics to extract beer but they really need to be mashed to unlock their full potential. They also don’t have enzymes like malted grains, so they need to be mashed with base malt to extract their sugars. Any starchy vegetable or grain can be used as an adjunct. Pumpkin and squash beers are not uncommon. Potatoes and rice have also been used in beer.